How do computers work What is Computer ?
Computers accept the input data, process that data, and return the output data. In order to accept the input data and return the output data. Computer is equipped with various peripherals. The peripherals used for inputting the data are keyboard, mouse, track ball, joy stick, disk drive, tape drive, scanner, and so on. Inside the computer, there is a CPU (Central Processing Unit) that processes the input data and returns the output data. Today the popular CPUs are iV , i 9 , i7 and Others. The peripherals used for outputting the data are monitor, printer, disk drive, tape drive and so on.
Front of a Computer System Unit
See the illustrated figure that shows the front of the system unit. The various components that are visible on front side of system unit are described below:
Power On/Off : Power On/Of Switch is generally located on the front panel. Simply press it to switch on the power, and again press it to switch off the power.
Reset Button : This button is used to restart a computer. If your computer is hanged, and pressing Ctrl + Alt + Del also doesn’t work, then you should use this button to restart your computer.
Turbo Button : Press the turbo button and computer runs faster. Particularly, while playing computer games you may wish to run your computer with low speed.
Indicator Lights : These lights indicate the status of computer, floppy drive, and hard disk.
CUP Back of A System Unit
See the illustrated figure that shows the back of the system unit. The various components on the back side of system unit are described below :
Power in And Power Out Sockets : A cable plugged in power in socket carries power from mains supply to a computer. A cable plugged in power out socket carries the power from system unit to the monitor.
Serial Ports : Serial ports connect your system unit to mouse or modem. Most PCs are fitted with two serials ports. It is either a 9 Pin Male Socket or a 25 pin Male socket. Pins are n wo rows.
Video/ Monitor Port : A control cable form your monitor is inserted in this port. For VGA monitor, it is a 15 hole female socket. Holes are in three rows.
Parallel Port : This port is generally used for connecting a printer to a system unit. It is a 25 hole female socket. Holes are in two rows.
Keyboard Port : It is circular in shape. It is also called as DIN port. This port is used to connect a system unit to a keyboard.
Fan Housing : To keep your computer cool, a fan is provided, Do not keep the back side of system unit in case contact with a wall also don not cover your computer by any dust cover while power is on. It will adversely affect the air circulation within your system unit.
Inside a System Unit (CPU)
System unit houses various components, such as mother board, power supply unit, Hard disk, ROM BIOS Chips, expansion cards, primary memory, speaker and so on.
Motherboard : True to its name, it is very important circuit board. CPU memory chips, various SMD ( Surface Mounted Device) and the other circuit boards are mounted on it.
CPU (Central Processing Unit) : CPU is a real workhouse, it is perhaps the most important component of the computer. Today the following CPUs are available in the market.
RAM Chips : Primary memory is also called as RAM (Random Access Memory) RAM chips of various capacity are available in the market. RAM chips are meant for primary storage. When you switch off the power supply, the contents of primary storage are lost.
Hard Disk : Today a typical computer is equipped with a hard disk of capacity in the range 500Gb to 2Tb. Hard disks are meant for the secondary storage.
Power Supply : A power supply in the computer is responsible for supplying the power to various components in the system unit.
Speaker and RTC : Speaker is for beeping and RTC (Real Time Clock) is for knowing the current time and date, Battery is provided to keep the RC running even when power is switched off.